All Articles

Multi tenancy task scheduler

Last time I showed how to extend Spring default request handler adapter so that we are able to schedule or reject incoming requests. The goal of the TenantTaskCoordinator is to:

  • queue requests for processing
  • limit the maximum number of concurrently processed requests
  • reject requests after the maximum queue size is reached
  • interrupt processing of a request upon an upstream subscription disposal

Assigning resources

Tenant task coordinator execute method

Our entry point into TenantTaskCoordinator is a single method fun <T : Any> execute(job: Callable<T>): Mono<T>:

    fun <T : Any> execute(job: Callable<T>): Mono<T> {
        return Mono.create({ outsideSink ->
            val _workInProgressWasDecremented = AtomicBoolean(false)
            fun decrementOnce() {
                if (_workInProgressWasDecremented.compareAndSet(false, true)) {

            val workInProgress = currentWorkInProgressCounter.incrementAndGet()
            if (workInProgress > maximumWorkInProgress) {
                outsideSink.error(TooManyTasks("Work in progress $workInProgress exceeds $maximumWorkInProgress jobs in $name"))
            } else {
                val singleJob = Mono.fromCallable(job).doAfterTerminate {

                val delayedTask = Task(name, singleJob as Mono<Any>, outsideSink as MonoSink<Any>)

                outsideSink.onCancel {

The first step is to return Mono<T> which is simply done with Mono.create. The sink we get passed is used to control the outcome observed from outside. It also allows for registering an onCancel callback invoked when the upstream cancels its subscription.

The _workInProgressWasDecremented is used to guard and decrement the currentWorkInProgressCounter in a thread safe fashion. We first check whether we have immediately exceeded the maximum number of queued jobs. If the threshold is reached, we notify the observer about the error with outsideSink.error.

If we have enough capacity to a perform job, we convert it to a reactive world with Mono.fromCallable and attach a doAfterTerminate callback that decrements the work in progress counter. The Task class links singleJob and outsideSink so that they are both accessible while processing. Finally, we schedule the task through

Task coordinator state

Let’s have a look at the task coordinator state variables and how they are initialized:

class TenantTaskCoordinator(private val scheduler: Scheduler,
                            val maximumConcurrency: Int = 1,
                            val maximumQueueSize: Int = 50,
                            val name: String = "") : AutoCloseable {

    private val maximumWorkInProgress = maximumQueueSize + maximumConcurrency

    private val maxBufferSize = maximumWorkInProgress * 2

    val currentWorkInProgressCounter = AtomicInteger()

    private lateinit var taskSink: FluxSink<Task>

    private val taskSource = Flux.create<Task>({ taskSink = it }, FluxSink.OverflowStrategy.BUFFER)

    private val processSinkOnErrorResume = processSinkWithLimitedConcurrency()
        .onErrorResume { error: Throwable? ->
            LOG.warn("name={} Error processing sink with limited concurrency", name, error)

The first interesting part is how we setup taskSink by using Flux.create. For clarity, we explicitly pass FluxSink.OverflowStrategy.BUFFER so that tasks are buffered in case they outpace the processor. The name is used to get better log messages. Finally, we call processSinkWithLimitedConcurrency to start task processing using the given scheduler. Interestingly the onErrorResume restarts the processing in case we have a bug.

Task coordinator concurrent processing

The most important and tricky to figure out part is to correctly process jobs. It took me several back and forth steps until I got the order of reactive API calls right.

    private fun processSinkWithLimitedConcurrency(): Flux<Any> {
        return taskSource
            .filter { !it.isCancelled }
            .flatMap({ task ->
            }, maximumConcurrency, maxBufferSize)

First, we filter out tasks that are already cancelled. Then, we use flatMap overload to process tasks with given maximum concurrency. The flatMap callback delegates most of the work to the mentioned Task instance. The onErrorReturn effectively suppresses any errors that might occur during task execution. Let’s see how the inner Task class looks like:

private data class Task(val name: String,
                            private val job: Mono<Any>,
                            val outsideSink: MonoSink<Any>,
                            @field:Volatile var isCancelled: Boolean = false) {

        val work: Mono<Any> get() = if (isCancelled) Mono.empty() else job

        lateinit var outsideTimeoutSink: MonoSink<Task>
        val outsideTimeout = Mono.create<Task> { outsideTimeoutSink = it }

        fun outsideCancel() {
            isCancelled = true

        fun onSuccess(result: Any?) {
        fun onError(error: Throwable) {
            LOG.warn("Task.onError {}", this, error)

The job argument is the Callable passed to the execute method. The outsideTimeout signals when the task instance subscription is cancelled. The signal is propagated inside processSinkWithLimitedConcurrency with a Mono.timeout call and breaks the task processing. Last but not least the onSuccess and onError simply push the result or error to the outsideSink effectively notifying the observer of the result.

The TenantTaskCoordinator was not simple to figure out given the requirements mentioned at the begging of the post. I’m pleased with the final result although I must say it was not intuitive to figure out how to combine all the nuts and bolts of Reactor library to achieve the desired outcome.